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Cycling - rules and races


 

Road cycling

Road bicycle racing involve both team and individual competition, and races are contested in various ways. They range from the one-day road race, criterium, and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours.


The races typically take place from spring through to fall. Many riders from the northern hemisphere spend the winter in countries such as Australia, to compete or train. Professional races range from the three-week "Grand Tour" stage races such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España to multi-day stage races such as the Tour de Suisse and Tour of California, to single day "Classics" such as the Tour of Flanders and Milan – San Remo. The longest one-day road race sanctioned by USA Cycling is Lotoja which covers the 206 miles (332 km) from Logan, Utah to Jackson, Wyoming. Criteriums are races based on circuits typically less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time (60 min, 90 min, etc.) rather than a specific distance. Criteriums are the most popular form of road racing in North America. In Belgium, kermesses are popular, single-day events of usually over 120 km. As well as road races in which all riders start simultaneously, individual time trial and team time trial events are also held on road-based courses.


Track cycling

Track cycling encompasses races that take place on banked tracks or velodromes. Events are quite diverse and can range from individual and team pursuits, two-man sprints, to various group and mass start races. Competitors use track bicycles which do not have brakes or freewheels.


Cyclo-cross

Cyclo-cross originated as a sport for road racers during the off season, to vary their training during the cold months. Races typically take place in the autumn and winter (the international or World Cup season is September–January) and consist of many laps of a 2–3 km or 1–2 mile course featuring pavement, wooded trails, grass, steep hills, and obstacles requiring the rider to dismount, carry the bike and remount in one motion. Races for senior categories are generally between 30 minutes and an hour long, the distance varying depending on the conditions. The sport is strongest in traditional road cycling countries such as Belgium (Flanders in particular) and France.

 

Mountain bike

Main article: Mountain bike racing
Mountain bike races are held off-road and involve moderate to high degree of technical riding. There are several varieties; the main categories are cross-country and downhill but also 4X or four cross racing.


BMX

BMX takes place off-road. BMX races are sprints on purpose-built off-road single-lap tracks typically on single-gear bicycles. Riders navigate a dirt course of jumps and banked and flat corners.

 

Cycle speedway

Cycle speedway is bicycle racing on short outdoor dirt tracks, 70–90 m in length.

Tro-Bro Léon (English: Tour of Léon) is a professional cycle road race held in Finistère, Brittany. The event was first run in 1984 as an amateur race, becoming a professional race since 2000. The race was established in 2005 as a 1.1 event on the UCI Europe Tour
It is often called Le Petit Paris–Roubaix or The Hell of the West due to its similarities with Paris–Roubaix, because Tro-Bro Léon includes 24 sections of dirt, cobblestones and gravel roads (making up to 29.7 km or 18.5 mi) on the rolling and windy roads of Brittany.

Motor-paced racing

Motor-paced racing and Keirin use motorcycles for pacing so bicyclists achieve higher speeds.

 

Average speeds

Speeds achieved on indoor tracks are usually greater than those on roads. Other factors affecting speed are the route profile (flats and hills), wind conditions, temperatures and elevation. At a 2013 event in Mexico, François Pervis achieved an average of 21.40 metres per second (77.0 km/h; 47.9 mph) with a flying start over 200 meters. The top average speed over the men's 1 km time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics was 16.4 metres per second (59 km/h; 37 mph) recorded by Chris Hoy. Average speeds clearly drop with increasing distance, so that over the 120 km Cootamundra Annual Classic it is 11.8 metres per second (42 km/h; 26 mph). In the 259 km 2010 Paris-Roubaix, Fabian Cancellara set a speed of 10.9 metres per second (39 km/h; 24 mph), while over the 818 km Furnace Creek 508, the speed drops dramatically to 8.3 metres per second (30 km/h; 19 mph). For an extreme road distance such as the 4800 km Race Across America, the average speed of the record holder is 5.7 metres per second (21 km/h; 13 mph), while the 2350 km Freedom Trail over mountainous terrain in South Africa is at a record speed of 1.9 metres per second (6.8 km/h; 4.3 mph).

 

Source: www.en.wikipedia.org

 

 



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